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1.

(7.1)

, U (x, y) :

dU=0 U=const=c

, xdy+ydx=0, , d(xy)=0 , , xy=c.

M N y x, (7.1) , ,

 

(7.2)

(7.2) ,

(7.3)

, (7.4)

M N.

, , M N 0 , , c , (7.3) (7.4)

(7.5)

(7.6)

. 7.1 .

 

(7.2). . (7.3) , - .

 

. 7.2

(7.2). . c=0, (7..5)

,

 

2. (7.1) , ,

, U (7.1).

, ,

- : (7.7)

, , ,   (7.7) , :

, (7.8)

. (7.9)

(7.8), .

,

, (7.10)

.

. 7.3

, , x:

. , :

.

, . ,

. , ,

- .

. 7.4

(7.10): ,

,

.., . (7.3)

- .

. 7.5 . , ,

. (7.9) :

* .

. 7.6 . , ,

. (7.9) :

*. , : - . (7.3) , , - .

, - .

. , , , - .



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